Syria has two-city agreements with Argentina (1), Armenia (1), Australia (1), Belarus (1), China (1), Iran (1), Lebanon (1), North Korea (1), Slovakia (1), South Africa (1), Spain (3), czech Republic (1), Tunisia (1) and Turkey (6). Within Europe, the twinning of cities is supported by the European Union.    The aid scheme was put in place in 1989. In 2003, some 1,300 projects benefited from an annual budget of around 12 million euros. The Council of European Municipalities and Regions also works closely with the Commission (DG Education and Culture) to promote modern and quality partnership initiatives and exchanges involving all populations. She created a city matching website.  In 1995, the European Union had more than 7,000 bilateral relations, involving nearly 10,000 European municipalities, mainly French (2837 city twinnings) and German (2,485 city twinnings).  Cities, cities and cities in partnership with twinning and twinning are sometimes conducted for political purposes. In 2013, the city of Gyongyus, Hungary, was associated with the Azerbaijani city of Shusha and signed the partnership agreement with representatives of the Azerbaijani government; Hungary recognized Shusha as a de jure part of Azerbaijan, although it was controlled at the time and until 2020 by the unrecognized Armenian and Artsakh armed forces.  In 2003, Preston City Councillors in England attempted to establish a partnership with the Palestinian city of Nablus in the name of solidarity.  Twin cities can count on an influx of businesses, tourism and trade, and more investment in the local economy. Building the international reputation of cities is a great opportunity for each city to showcase its local achievements.
In the United Kingdom, the term “twin cities” is the most widely used; the term “sister cities” is generally used for agreements with cities in North and South America.   On the European continent, the most commonly used terms are `twin cities`, `twin cities`, `twin cities` and `friendship cities`. The European Commission uses the term `twin cities` and refers to the process as `twinning cities`.   Spain uses the term “ciudades hermanadas,” which means “sister cities.” Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic use the partner city (De) / miasto partnerskie (Pl) / partnerské mesto (Cz), which means “partner city” or “partner city”. France uses twin city (twinning, twinning city or city) and Italy a gemellaggio (partnership) and comune gemellato (common partner).  In the Netherlands, the terms “Partnerstad” or “Stedenband” (“urban borrowing” when it comes to mutual assistance). In Greece, the word “Adelfopiisi – Fraternity” was adopted. In Iceland, the terms vinab`ir (friends cities) and Vinaborgir (friends cities) are used. In the former Soviet bloc, “twin cities” and “twin cities” were used, with the “Ru” (sworn brother cities).   A city can have any number of twin cities, with a collective commitment of half a dozen to hundreds of volunteers. In addition to volunteers, sister city organizations may also include representatives of non-profit organizations, local authorities, the private sector and other citizen organizations.
The first known twinning in Europe was between Paderborn, Germany, and Le Mans, France, in 836.   From 1905, Keighley, in West Yorkshire, England, had a twinning with the French communes of Suresnes and Puteaux.   The first modern twinning recorded between Keighley and Poix-du-Nord in the North, France, in 1920, after the end of the First World War.     It was originally the adoption of the French city; Formal partnership charters were not exchanged until 1986.  The history of a twin city goes back centuries.